In April, Public Policy Associates, Inc. (PPA) released an issue brief analyzing the digital gap for Michigan students. The brief, Digital Inequities and Disparities: Technology Access for Michigan Students, examined the disparities in access between rural and urban students, White students and students of color, and those in low-income families and others.

Using data from the American Community Survey (ACS) from the U.S. Census Bureau, the brief estimated that approximately 419,000 Michigan students lacked access to online instructional technology. The brief highlighted an urban-rural digital divide that is much larger in Michigan than other states. A technical appendix, which discussed definitions and research considerations, accompanied the brief in April.

Today, PPA has released a second appendix for the brief, presenting a map showing the broadband access of households with school-aged children in Michigan using data from the Public-Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs) estimated by county. A second map is also being provided that shows broadband access data, as reported by the Federal Communications Commission. These data are compiled from mandatory reporting submitted by Internet Service Providers (ISPs).

For more information about PPA’s work in education, you may contact the authors of this brief, Nathan Burroughs, Ph.D., at or Daniel J. Quinn, Ph.D., at Robb Burroughs,, also contributed to this work.